Total views : 519

Assessing Quality of Educational Service by the Servqual Model: Viewpoints of Hotel Management Undergraduate Students at Manipal University in India


  • Welcomegroup Graduate School of Hotel Administration, Manipal University, India


Considerations and thoughts on how students perceive or expect quality of educational services, contributes to a great deal in improving the quality of educational and academic services in Universities and Institutions across the world. Defining the probable gaps between the expectations and perceptions of students will enable educational service providers to embark on necessary actions to augment the quality of educational services provided by a university particularly offering a hospitality management degree. The aim of this study is to use the SERVQUAL instrument to measure and identify any actual or perceived gaps between student's expectations and perceptions of the educational services of their University. Particularly aimed at determining the quality gap in educational services provided to the Undergraduate Hotel Management students of the Manipal University - India in December 2013.The students participating in the study are pursuing a 4 year Bachelor Degree in Hotel Management. The study will also provide insights to the University on the improvements needed for future student satisfaction on educational services and quality improvements. The SERVQUAL metric was adapted for the measurement of service quality in the higher education of hotel management course at Manipal University and conducted on an entire population of students. The proposed instrument is tested only in one University in India with an entire population (170 students) of two years of study. This research paper presents an approach to using SERVQUAL for measuring student's expectations and perceptions. The adapted factors concerning student services at a University from the standard SERVQUAL instrument are questioned using the SERVQUAL methodology. The detailed statistical analysis reduced to meaningful statements are usable by the management of university's as an effective easy to apply quality measurement tool. The outcomes of the study resulted in a negative quality gap in all five dimensions of quality educational services: Tangible (physical environments) Reliability (trustworthiness) Responsiveness (Sensitivity) Assurance (guarantee) Empathy (Understanding). The maximum and minimum mean of quality gap observed was -0.48 in the dimension of Tangibles and -0.11 in the dimension of assurance respectively. It is significant to note that the perceptive gap of the female students were higher than the perceptive gap of the male students in all 5 dimensions. Female rated reliability with high mean and the male students rated tangibles with a high mean. It was also observed that the P value of female scores on the dimension off reliability 0.033 and responsive 0.031 and is statistically relevant as it is less than 0.05.


Academic Services, Educational Services, Expectation, Perception, Quality Gap, Servqual Model, Stakeholders, Students ‘perception, Students’ Service Quality.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 205)


  • Babacus, E., & Boller, G. W. (1992). An empirical assessment of the SERVQUAL scale. Journal of Business research, 24(3), 253–268.
  • Barnes, B. R. (2006, December). Analysing service quality : The case of post graduate Chinese Students. Leeds University Business School; Working paper series,1(1), 1–34. Retrieved from
  • Beheshtirad, R., Ghalavandi, H., & Ghaleei, A. (2012). The interval of educational services quality: Distance of current and desirable situation by nursing students point of view of Urnia Medical University. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences,3(12), 2466-2471.
  • Campbell, J., Ramsay, J., & Green, J. (2001). Green J. Age, gender, socioeconomic and ethnic differences in patients’ assessments of primary health care. Quality in health care. 2001; 10:90-95. Doi: 10.1136/qhc.10.2 90.[pubMed]. Campbell JL, Ramsay J, Green J. Age, gender, socioeconomic and ethnic differences in patients’ assessments of primary health care. Quality in health care. 10:90-95. Doi: 10.1136/qhc. 10.2 90.[pubMed], 10(2), 90–95. doi:10:90-95. Doi:10.1136/qhc. 10.2 90.[pubMed]
  • Chua, C. (2006). Perception of Quality in Higher Education. Australian Universities Quality Forum Quality in a time of change : proceedings of the Australian Universities Quality Forum 2004, Adelaide, Australia, 7-9 July 2004, 2004 (ISBN: 1877090336) (ISSN: 1446-4268). Adelaide: Proceedings of the Australian Universities Quality Forum 2004, Adelaide, Australia, 7–9 July 2004. Retrieved from http:/ / files/ publications/ auqf2004_proce edings.pdf
  • Cook, C., & Thomson, B. (2001). Scaling for the LibQUAL +TM instrument : A comparison of desired , perceived and minimum expectation responses versus perceived only. 4th Northumbria International Conference. Pittsburgh Pennsylvania US.
  • Cronin, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1994). SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling performance based and perception - Minus - Expectations measurement of Service Quality. American Marketing Association, 58(1), 125–131.
  • Deming, W. E. (1950). Elementary Principles of the Statistical Control of Quality. Tokyo: Nippon Kagaku Gijutsu Renmei.
  • Gronroos, C. (1988). Service Quality: the six criteria of good service quality. Review of Business, 9(3), 10–13.
  • Hassan, H. F., & Iliaz, A. (2008). Service Quality and Student Satisfaction: A Case Study at private higher education institutions. International Business Research, 1(3), 163–175.
  • Johns, N. (1996). The developing role of quality in the hospitality industry. In M. D.Olsen, R. Teare, & E.Gummesson, Service Quality in Hospitality organizations (pp. 9–26). New york: Cassell.
  • Kandampully, J., Mok, C., & Sparks, B. (2008). Service Quality Management in Hospitality and Tourism. Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House.
  • Kebriaei, A., & Akbari, F. (2008). Quality gap of educational services at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin , 34(3).
  • Lamei, A. (2000). Total Quality Management in Health Care. Teheran: Ministry of health and education, IRAN.
  • Malik, S. A., Hassan, S., & Iqbal, M. Z. (2012). Measuring students’ perceptions and expectations inbusiness schools of Pakistan. Asian Education and Development Studies, 1(3), 222–236.
  • Mills, P. K. (1986). Managing Service Industries: Organisational Practices in a Post Industrial Economy. New York : Ballinger.
  • Mohammadkarim, B., Sadeghifar, J., Nejati, M., Hamouzadeh, P., & Hakimzadeh, M. (2011). Assessing Quality of Educational Service by the SERVQUAL model: Viewpoints of paramedical students at Teheran University of medical science. technics technologies education management, 6(4), 1058–1065.
  • Nightingale, M. (1985). The Hospitality Industry: Defining Quality for Quality Assurance Programme - A study of perceptions. Service Industries Journal, 5(1),9–24.
  • Olsen, M. D., Teare, R., & Gumesson, E. (1996). Service Quality in Hospitality Organisations . New York: cassell.
  • Parasuram, A., Zeithaml, A. V., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual Model of Service Quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41–50.
  • Parasuraman, A., Berry, L. L., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 9–24.
  • Parasuraman, A., Berry, L. L., & Zeithaml, V. A.(1988). SERVQUAL:a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12–14.
  • Rodrigues, L. L., Barkur, G., Varambally, K., & Motagh, F. G. (2011). Comparision of SERVQUAL and SERVPERF metrics: an empirical study. The TQM Journal, 23(6), 629–643.
  • Shostack, L. G. (1977). Breaking Free from Product Marketing. Journal of marketing, 41(2), 73–81.
  • Slade, L., M, H., & Harker, D. (2000, 28 November). Why do they leave , why do they stay ? Perceptions of service quality at a new university”,. , ANZMAC2000, proceedings of Australia New Zealand Marketing Academy, 28 November-1 December, Griffith Unive (p. 28). Gold Coast, Australia: In A. O’Cass (Ed.).
  • Svensson, G., & Wood, G. (2007). Are university students really customers? When illusion may lead to delusion for all! International Jaournal of Educational Management, 21(1), 17–28.
  • Tan, K. C., & Kek, S. W. (2004). Service Quality in Higher Education using an enhanced SERVQUAL approah. Quality in Higher Education, 10(1), 17–24.
  • Tenner, A. R., & DeToro, I. J. (1994). Total Quality Management. Boston: Addison Wesley .
  • Xu, H. (n.d.). Students’ perceptions of university education – USA vs. China. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from
  • Zainuddin, S., Kahmis, M., Muhamad, A., & Mamat, N. (2014). Perception and expectation of students towards the service quality: perspective in malaysianresearch university. Malaysian online journal of educational management, 2(2), 73–91.
  • Zeithaml, V., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1990). Delivering Quality Service Balancing Customer perceptions and expectations. New York: Free Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.